Enlightenment and the Age of Reason- 1600 & 1700's
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Enlightenment- state of illumination (light), time period when humans were "reasoning" out information for themselves and not depending on others for assistance
Key Thinkers of Time: Issac Newton, Adam Smith, Voltaire, Descartes, John Locke (just to name a few)
Famous Musicans: Mozart, Bach, Handel
- music became less religious and was played in theatres for first time
Key Characteristics of Enlightenment:
1. Individualism- every person is important, valuable, have "natural rights" that we are all born with
2. Trade should be balanced- more exports than imports (increase wealth of nations)
3. By using reasoning skills, people can arrive at truth, and ultimately improve life
4. Different cultural ideas, beliefs had merit (worth) - came about as result of Age of Exploration
5. Began with the Scientific Revolution- study of the universe-- what is in the center??? , development of the scientific method
6. Revolution- change in governments in many areas--- 13 colonies, French Revolution,etc.
- Renaissance (refer to Greek and Roman classical culture) paved the way for the Scientific Revolution
- greater access to knowledge, cultural interests during the Renaissance (open-minded thinking)
- Scientific Revolution brought a greater understanding of math and science
TO DO: Use the link to create your W notes on 2 famous scientific thinkers that were signficant "thinkers" of the Enlightenment time period.
What did the major religions believe about these new theories?
Catholic Church supported Ptolemy’s theory of Earth as center of Universe
• Copernicus: Heliocentric (Sun centered), was a monk- doesn’t publish while he is alive
• Kepler expands/proves further Heliocentric theory
• Galileo – telescope developed to provide more observations to prove previous heliocentric theory
• Sir Isaac Newton: laws of gravity, gravitation theory published o Church of England more accepting of new ideas than Catholic Church Society’s response to new theories
Impact of Enlightenment:
- New scientific theories opens the door for other new ideas and philosophies
- people apply scientific thinking to help solve problems
- Absolute monarchs begin to lose power as people ask for more freedoms
- Middle class has a stronger voice once they become more educated
- Governments work for people, not people working for the government
- Democratic foundations laid in many areas of world--- Declaration of Independence, US Constitution, concept of separation of powers, etc.